### Syllabus

Chapter 1: Electronics: A Historical Perspective

A brief history of electronics is given, covering vacuum tubes and semiconductor devices. Evolution of
integrated circuits is described.

Chapter 2: Network Theorems

Principles and theorems frequently used in electronics, such as superposition, Thevenin's theorem, source
transformation, and maximum power transfer, are explained along with examples.

Chapter 3: Use of Phasors in Circuit Analysis

The meaning of the sinusoidal steady state is explained. Phasors are introduced, and the relation between a
time-domain quantity and the corresponding phasors is explained. Use of phasors in circuit analysis is illustrated
with the help of examples.

Chapter 4: RC and RL Circuits with Piece-wise Constant Sources

RC and RL circuits (with a single capacitor or a single inductor) with piece-wise constant sources are discussed.
The general form of voltage and current transients is derived, and several examples are considered to illustrate
how the general form can be used in circuit analysis.

Chapter 5: Diode Circuits

The current versus voltage relationship of a diode is explained, and a simple circuit model is described.
Diode circuits for wave shaping and clipping are discussed, followed by peak detector, clamper, and voltage
doubler circuits. Half-wave and full-wave diode rectifiers are presented along with typical examples.

Chapter 6: BJT Circuits: Part 1

The bipolar transistor is introduced. The meaning of active, saturation, and cut-off modes is explained. The
relationship between β and α for a transistor is discussed. A few simple BJT circuits are presented and analysed.

Chapter 7: BJT Circuits: Part 2

The basic principle behind a BJT amplifier is presented. Biasing schemes for a BjT amplifier are illustrated
with examples. Analysis of circuits with both DC and AC sources is discussed. BJT small-signal model is derived
and is used to obtain the complete small-signal equivalent circuit of the common-emitter amplifier. Frequency
response of a common-emitter amplifier is discussed qualitatively.

Chapter 8: Op-Amp Circuits: Part 1

The operational amplifier (op-amp) is introduced. Input and output resistances, and gain of an op-amp are
discussed. The meaning of linear and saturation regions of operation is clarified. A few basic op-amp circuit
blocks, viz., the inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, buffer, and summer are discussed. Design of an
amplifier with a relatively high gain is described.

Chapter 9: Op-amp Circuits: Part 2

The meaning of common-mode gain, differential gain, and CMRR is explained. It is shown how the difference
amplifier circuit has limitations because of finite resistor tolerances. The instrumentation amplifier,
which has a higher CMRR as compared to the difference amplifier, is described. Additional op-amp circuits, viz.,
current-to-voltage converter, integrator, and triangle-to-sine converter, are described.

Chapter 10: Non-idealities in op-amps

Offset voltage and input bias currents of an op-amp are discussed.
Their effect on circuit performance is described.

Chapter 11: Filters

Various types of filters are introduced, and their ideal behaviour is described. Implementation of practical
filters is presented, starting with passive filters and followed by op-amp filters. Construction of asymptotic
Bode plots is illustrated with an example.

Chapter 12: Precision filters and related circuits

Several "precision" circuits using op-amps and diodes are discussed in which the diode drop (typically about
0.7 V) is effectively eliminated. Precision clipper and clamper circuits, precision rectifier circuits are
described. An interesting application, viz., AM demodulation, of a precision rectifier circuit is presented.

Chapter 13: Schmitt trigger and applications

The concepts of negative and positive feedback are discussed qualitatively. Inverting and non-inverting Schmitt
trigger circuits are discussed, and their Vo versus Vi relationships are described. Waveform generation using
Schmitt triggers is described.

Chapter 14: Sinusoidal Oscillators

The principle of operation of sinusoidal oscillators is described. Some examples of gain limiting networks,
which are useful in limiting the amplitude of the output voltage in sinusoidal oscillators, are presented.
Two specific oscillator circuits, viz., Wien bridge oscillator and phase-shift oscillator are described.

Chapter 15: Frequency Response of Inverting Amplifier

The gain versus frequency relationship of op-amp 741 is described. Using the transfer function of the 741 op-amp,
the frequency response of the inverting amplifier is explained. It is pointed out that there is a trade-off in
practice between amplifier gain and cut-off frequency.

Chapter 16: Digital Circuits: Boolean variables

Advantages of using digital circuits are described. Operation of logic gates in terms of truth tables is
discussed. Commonly used boolean theorems are presented. Different ways of writing logical expressions and
the use of Karnaugh maps to minimise logical expressions are discussed. It is shown that logical expressions
can be implemented using only NAND gates or only NOR gates.

Chapter 17: Digital Circuits: Combinatorial Blocks

Commonly used combinatorial blocks, viz., half and full adders, multiplexers, demultiplexers, encoders, decoders,
are described, and their functionality is explained with the help of examples. The use of multiplexers in
implementation of logical functions is described.

Chapter 18: Digital Circuits: Flip-flops

Sequential circuits are introduced. To begin with, the NAND and NOR latches are described, and using these ideas,
edge-triggered flip-flops are introduced. In particular, the operation of the master-slave JK flip-flop is
considered in detail. D flip-flop is then introduced. A few applications, viz., shift registers, multiplication
using shift-add, and parallel-in-serial-out data transfer, are discussed.

Chapter 19: Digital Circuits: Counters

Counters are introduced, and the meaning of the modulo number of a counter is explained. Various types of
counters are discussed. A systematic approach for design of synchronous counters is described with the help of
an example. Combination of counters to obtain a higher modulo number is illustrated with examples.

Chapter 20: 555 Timer Circuits

The internal circuit of a 555 timer is discussed. Two applications of the 555 timer, viz., monostable operation
to generate a pulse of fixed duration and astable operation to generate a square wave, are described.

Chapter 21: D-to-A and A-to-D Conversion

Applications of digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters are described. The weighted-resistor DAC
is discussed and its limitation pointed out. It is shown that the R-2R ladder DAC addresses the limitations of
the weighted-resistor DAC. Various types of ADC, viz., flash ADC, successive approximation ADC, counting ADC,
dual-slope ADC, are described.

Level

Undergraduate

Prerequisites

None

Category

Self-paced

Estimated Time

50 hours

### Meet the instructor

Mahesh B. Patil

Mahesh B. Patil received B. Tech. from IIT Bombay in 1984,
M.S. from the University of Southern California in 1987 and PhD from the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign in 1992, all in Electrical Engineering.

His current areas of interest are circuit simulation, and applications of stochastic optimisation.

His current areas of interest are circuit simulation, and applications of stochastic optimisation.